A new method of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is applied to the analysis of burned bones. FTIR analyses were undertaken to examine changes in Crystallinity Index (CI), Ca/P and C/C ratios in bone experimentally burned to known, but varying, temperatures and durations. Three sample groups were used to assess the new FTIR method. Blind tests were performed to assess the use of the CI for predicting burning conditions. The results suggested that the new method of FTIR was preferable to the traditional approach, but that CI is affected by factors other than temperature of burning, including the method of FTIR used, and that predictions of burning conditions in archaeological material may not extend beyond that of ‘high’ or ‘low’ intensity of burning.