A five-year programme of archaeological investigations was undertaken within a c.9ha area to the north of the High Street, Staines on land formerly predominantly occupied by the Central Trading Estate. The vast majority of the archaeological evidence pertains to the Romano-British settlement established in the second half of the first century AD at this bridging point across the Thames, forming the main route from London to the west of the province. The early settlement flourished, with expansion in the second century AD, followed by a hiatus and apparent contraction in the late-second/early-third centuries, occupation continuing to the end of the Roman period. Much of the land to the north of the main road formed areas of refuse disposal and small-holdings, with probable animal corralling and grazing, the latter extending into the rich meadowland bordering the north side of the gravel island on which the town was built. The single building for which evidence was recovered corresponds with the second-century phase of expansion. The basic economy of the town seems to have remained much the same throughout the Romano-British period, with most foodstuffs being brought in from the surrounding area. Post-Roman activity was negligible until the twelfth century, with a subsequent concentration in the eastern half of the main gravel island. Here, burgage plots – small-holdings, some used for horticultural purposes, others for storage/stabling and the keeping of animals – extending on to the water-meadows to the north, were established at right-angles to the course followed by the current High Street.