OS 2½in sheets SS 70, 80 etc. In the criticism of Saxon charters, definitive results can only be achieved by a combination of several disciplines. For instance, fieldwork combined with historical, diplomatic, palaeographical and textual analysis permits the authentication of two previously disputed charters (of Athelstan, AD 930 and of Ethelred II, 997) relating to complementary tracts of land in the parish of Sandford, Devon. Some light is also thrown on the agrarian history of the parish. Another Crediton document, the Bounds of Creedy-land, has for the first time been completely checked on the ground; its area coincides with no known administrative unit of any date, but it may have constituted part of an episcopal ship-soke during the Viking troubles of Ethelred II's reign. The fourth document is recognised as a copy of an 8th cent charter of Aethelheard of Wessex, with 11th cent additions.