Pages & Document Description:
Experimental work, designed to establish the basic metallurgical processes of a formative phase of copper extraction and working, was performed in laboratory conditions in the light of information derived from archaeological excavations at Timna Site 39. At this site the smiths had used simple bowl smelting furnaces as well as developed bowl-shaped furnaces with sophisticated tuyères and slag-tapping facilities which closely resemble those used for iron smelting in parts of Europe into medieval times. The experimental results are presented and discussed; it was found, for instance, that the furnace products emerged in globular, not plano-convex form, and that the arsenic content of the copper reflected that of the ore.
Source full ref:
Rothenberg, Beno, Tylecote, R F & Boydell, P J 1978 `Chalcolithic copper smelting: excavations and experiments' Archaeo-Metallurgy Inst Archaeo-Metallurgical Studies London 1, 1978 51 pp, pls, figs, tables. Price £4 (paper). 
51 pp, pls, figs, tables. Price £4 (paper).